Working with milliseconds in Excel

Milliseconds are not first-class citizens in Excel. There’s no MILLISECOND equivalent to the SECOND function and you will not find a predefined time format that includes hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds.

This does not mean that Excel cannot process time values with milliseconds. The only requirement is that they are in a format that Excel recognizes. You should also assign a custom format to the cells so that you can easily read the values. I will explain these two aspects in this article and present solutions to common millisecond related tasks and problems. If you’re only interested in a brief summary, jump to the TL;DR at the end.

Note: I’m using US region settings for this article. Other regions may require different formats, e.g. “hh:mm:ss,000” for Germany (with a comma instead of a dot).

Time formats with milliseconds recognized by Excel

Internally, Excel stores time values as fractions of a day (24 hours). This means that 12h are represented as 12÷24 = ½ = 0.5 (half a day) and 3h as 3÷24 = 0.125. In this representation, 1ms is only a tiny value: 1ms ÷ (24h × 60min/h × 60s/min × 1000ms/s) = 1÷86400000 ≈ 0.000000011574074 (compare this to the numeric precision of Excel).

This makes the calculation of time differences very easy, but entering values in this way is not particularly user friendly. Fortunately, Excel also recognizes the following format and similar variants:

hh:mm:ss.000

Example: “01:23:45.678” stands for one hour, 23 minutes, 45 seconds and 678 milliseconds. You do not have to type leading zeros (or trailing zeros in the milliseconds part).

Numbers entered like this or read from a file in this format are converted to fractions of a day. However, they are not displayed correctly until you assign a corresponding custom format to the cells, as explained below.

Custom cell format with milliseconds

Practical example

Click here to download a CSV file created by our data acquisition software Simple Data Logger during a fill weighing operation using an A&D GX-A precision balance. The software was configured to record the date, time (with milliseconds) and weight:

Time with milliseconds in weight recording software
The custom format string in this software is different from the one used by Excel. To the right of the “add time” field, you can see that it produces the desired output.

After opening the CSV file in Excel, you will notice that the time is not displayed correctly:
CSV file opened in Excel, date, time (not formatted correctly) and weight

This can be fixed by assigning the following custom format to the cells (select the column containing the time, right-click and choose “format cells”):

[hh]:mm:ss.000

The square brackets indicate that this is an “elapsed time” format that can display hourly values equal to or greater than 24h. Once applied, the time values are shown in the desired format:

Date, time with milliseconds and weight shown correctly in Excel

Common tasks when using milliseconds in Excel

Calculating time differences

Thanks to the numeric format used internally by Excel, you can perform all kinds of calculations with time values. To calculate a time difference, simply subtract the later time from the earlier one:

Calculating with milliseconds in Excel

If the result consists of “############” instead of the expected time difference, there can be several reasons:

  • You may need to apply the same custom [hh]:mm:ss.000 format as above to the results.
  • The result is a negative value. Excel does not like negative time values, but there are some workarounds.

Be careful with date changes! The simple time difference formula used above will fail at midnight. Fortunately, dates are internally stored as whole numbers and you can therefore simply add the date and time values before performing the subtraction as I’ve explained here.

Show milliseconds only

Excel does not have a MILLISECOND function to return only the milliseconds of a time value. You can use the following formula instead:

=RIGHT(TEXT(D2, "hh:mm:ss.000"),3)*1

This takes the 3 rightmost characters (the milliseconds) from the D2 cell and multiplies them by one to ensure the result is treated as a number (not text).

Format the cells in the result column as a number without decimal places and you will see that only the milliseconds have been extracted:

Milliseconds extracted from time in Excel

You can then easily perform calculations such as MIN, MAX, STDEV.P, etc.

Conversion of time values into milliseconds

If you want to convert entire time values to milliseconds instead of just extracting the milliseconds part, there are two approaches that should lead to the same result.

You can use the built-in HOUR, MINUTE and SECOND functions together with our MILLISECOND function replacement (see above) to convert a time value (in cell D2):

=HOUR(D2)*3600000+MINUTE(D2)*60000+SECOND(D2)*1000+RIGHT(TEXT(D2, "hh:mm:ss.000"),3)

There is also an elegant alternative to this solution: You can simply multiply the time value by 86400000 to convert it into milliseconds. This works because of the internal numeric format used by Excel where 1 is equal to 24h = 24h × 60min/h × 60s/min × 1000ms/s = 86400000ms.

Use an easier format to manually enter times with milliseconds

The time values with milliseconds used for the examples above were already available in the “hh:mm:ss.000” format required by Excel. But what if you must enter many time values manually? Maybe you prefer a format that only uses dots so you can keep your hand on the numeric keypad, e.g. 1.25.54.010 instead of 1:25:54.010.

For Excel to recognize these values as times, they must be converted to the “hh:mm:ss.000” format. However, if you use the SUBSTITUTE function to replace all dots with colons, you wont preserve the last dot. The solution is to limit SUBSTITUTE to replace only the first occurrence of a dot and then apply it again to replace the second dot, leaving the last one intact. The required formula looks complicated but is actually simple (it assumes the value you want to transform is contained in cell A2):

=SUBSTITUTE(SUBSTITUTE(A2,".",":",1),".",":",1)

Please try it out before you manually enter hundreds of time values using the dot format. It worked fine for me:

Excel time with milliseconds entered with dot

TL;DR (too long, didn’t read)

  1. Make sure that your time values are available as hh:mm:ss.000, e.g. “01:23:45.678”.
  2. Assign the following custom format to your cells: [hh]:mm:ss.000.

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Reading force measurement values from A&D’s LCCU-21 button load cell

A&D’s LCCU-21 USB subminiature button load cells are available in capacities ranging from 100 N to 1 kN. Their tiny size makes it easy to incorporate them into your own machinery or test equipment. They are connected to an A/D converter with a USB interface, enabling you to quickly build PC-based force measurement and data acquisition systems at a very affordable price.

A&D LCCU21N100 usb button load cell

LCCU21 device profile in Simple Data Logger

As an alternative to A&D’s free WinCT-DLC application, you can also use these load cells with the most recent release of our Simple Data Logger software (SDL v1.2.1). In this article, I’ll show you how to configure SDL to request data from the load cell in user-defined intervals (polling).

The LCCU-21 button load cell has two data transfer modes: continuous transfer of up to 100 values/s and a command/reply mode. Currently, only the second mode is supported by Simple Data Logger (continuous mode has to be started and stopped by sending special commands to the LCCU-21, which is something that will be available in a future version of SDL).

Force measurement using A&D’s LCCU-21 button load cell and Simple Data Logger

1. Download and install Simple Data Logger.

2. Go to the license tab and enter a license key (required for the polling function). You can purchase license keys from FastSpring through a completely automated process (including a “90 days” license for only US$5). You can also contact us if you require a free trial license or apply to become a reseller if you want to sell our software to your customers.

3. In the input tab, set the device to “A&D LCCU21”, then click on set default parameters for device. This will set all interface parameters for you. The only thing left to set is the (virtual) COM port which appeared on your PC after connecting the LCCU-21 to a USB port (see this PDF document for further information):
A&D LCCU-21 usb button load cell: configuration in input tab

5. Switch to the control tab, enable polling and set the timer to a value that makes sense for your application. Click on set default command for A&D LCCU21; this will automatically enter the “RLMV” command which will be sent to the USB button load to request measurement data:
Set default command for A&D LCCU-21 usb button load cell

6. Select a file in the output tab. Click on the set values button to automatically set the values below for your region so that you can easily open the CSV file in Excel later. If you want to record the time with milliseconds, choose the appropriate format from the drop down list or enter it manually:
CSV file format settings

7. Click on the start button in the start tab to connect to the LCCU-21 USB button load cell and to start sending the polling command. Commands and replies are shown in the event log. Captured measurement values appear in blue and are written to the CSV file. Click on stop to stop data acquisition and to close the file:
Data acquisition from A&D LCCU-21 usb button load cell

Notes on the LCCU-21 button load cell

  • I don’t have the LCCU21N100 I used for testing anymore, so if you have any questions about it, please contact A&D.
  • The product brochure (PDF) contains several creative application examples, including one where load is applied by pressing the button load cell with a finger. When I tried this, it worked, but not very well: I found that it is impossible to press only the load sensitive surface (though maybe that’s not an issue for people with smaller fingers). It is therefore advisable to “apply load to the load cell through a rigid surface” as stated in the user manual.

Further information

Interface description (RS-232) for A&D FX-i and FZ-i precision balances

A&D’s FX-i and FZ-i precision balances are equipped with a serial interface (RS-232) and can be easily connected to a computer for data transfer (if necessary with a converter from RS-232 to USB or to Ethernet). You can, of course, also connect other devices such as a serial printer, a data logger or a secondary display.

I recently tested all communication modes and their various settings in order to update the product description in our German scales shop. Since this took me a lot of time, I also translated my findings into English for publication on this blog.

I found that all commonly used communication modes (a.k.a. transfer modes, transmission modes) are supported and that they can often be fine-tuned in a way rarely possible with other balances. Concerning the data format, the FX-i and FZ-i balances support not only A&D’s standard format, but also several other formats which might make these scales suitable as a drop-in replacement for older Mettler Toledo or Sartorius balances. However, the more recent SICS protocol was not implemented.

The balances support a number of commands for bidirectional communication. Unfortunately, not all applications and settings are accessible via remote commands (for example, the limits for checkweighing cannot be set by a connected computer).

You can use any terminal software to test communication via the RS-232 interface (e.g. HTerm or PuTTY). For productive use, I recommend A&D’s free WinCT software or our Simple Data Logger software. The best integration can often be achieved by customizing your own software to communicate directly with the balance.

RS-232 interface and cable

FX-i and FZ-i balances have a built-in DE9M connector and require a straight (1:1) cable (not a null modem cable):
RS-232 interface on A&D FX-300i balance

Interface parameters

Default settings are highlighted in bold:

Baud rate: 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200
Data bits: 7 bits or 8 bits
Parity: even, odd (for 7 data bits), none (for 8 data bits)
Stop bits: 1 bit
Data flow control (handshaking): none (RTS and CTS lines are connected internally but not used for actual flow control).

Data format

By default, the balances use the proven A&D format and transmit 17 ASCII characters for each weight value:

First line: number; second line: ASCII characters sent by the balance; third line: hexadecimal value
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617
ST,+00456.89gCRLF
53542C2B30303435362E38392020670D0A

As far as I know, the very first scale from A&D with a data interface already used the same format. This is very impressive, particularly when other manufacturers sometimes change the data format between firmware updates or even between transmission modes.

As alternatives to the A&D format, 5 further data formats can be used. The user manual (PDF) contains a detailed description in chapter 10-6.

Communication modes

The corresponding setting in the menu of the balance is indicated in [square brackets].

  1. Key mode: The weight is transmitted when the PRINT button on the balance is pressed.
    • Mode A: Only when the weight is stable [dout / Prt 0].
    • Mode B: Immediate transmission (stable and unstable weight) [dout / Prt 4].
    • Mode C: The balance waits until the weight has stabilized and then transmits it [dout / Prt 5].
  2. Auto-print: The weight is automatically transmitted after stabilization.
    • Mode A: Return to zero is required before next transmission [dout / Prt 1]. You can set which range around zero counts as “zero” (10, 100 or 1000 digits) [dout / AP-b]. You can also specify whether only positive, negative or all values should be transmitted [dout /AP-P].
    • Mode B: No return to zero is required before the next transmission [dout / Prt 2]. You can set the required difference from the last stable value (10, 100 or 1000 digits) [dout / AP-b]. You can also specify whether lower, higher or all values should be transmitted (compared to the last stable value) [dout /AP-P].
  3. Stream mode: Continuous transmission of 5, 10 or 20 values/s [dout / Prt 3]. The frequency is determined by the display refresh rate [bASFnc / SPd]. This mode is not suitable if you connected a printer or hardware data logger to the balance, but it is required if you want to use an external display. Our data logger software can also easily handle this number of values per second.
  4. Interval mode: Transmission of a value every 2, 5, 10, 30 or 60 seconds or every 2, 5, or 10 minutes [dout / Prt 6].
  5. Command mode: The balance responds to commands received over the interface (bi-directional communication). Available in all modes, see commands below.

In mode 1, 2 and 4, the display blinks to signal that the weight has been transmitted.

Supported commands

“Q” is used to get the weight immediately, while “S” is used to get the next stable weight. All commands must be terminated with carriage return and line feed:

No.: 1 2 3
ASCII:QCRLF
Hex:51OD0A

Complete list of commands (in alphabetical order):

?IDRequests the balance ID (can be set through the menu).
?PTRequests the pre-tare value (which has been set using the PT command).
?SNRequests the balance’s serial number.
?TNRequest the balance’s model name.
CCancels the S or SIR command.
CALSame as pressing the CAL button.
<ESC>PSame as the “S” command. <ESC> is the escape control character (1Bh). Compatible to Sartorius SBI and older Sartorius balances.
<ESC>TSame as pressing the RE-ZERO button.
EXCCalibration using an external weight (only for FZ-i).
QRequests the weight data immediately.
OFFTurns the balance off.
ONTurns the balance on.
PSame as the ON:OFF button (“P” = power?).
PRTSame as pressing the PRINT key.
PTSets a tare value, PT:xxx.x g. The unit must be transmitted using A&D’s format (3 characters, right-justified, padded with spaces).
RSame as pressing the RE-ZERO key.
SRequest the stabilized weight.
SISame as “Q” (compatible to older Mettler-Toledo balances).
SIRSwitch to stream mode (continuous transmission).
SMPSame as pressing the SAMPLE key
TTares the balance.
USame as pressing the MODE key.
ZSame as pressing the RE-ZERO key.

Other settings affecting RS-232 data transmission

You can set the balance to acknowledge valid commands with the ACK control character (06h) and to reply to invalid with “EC” and an error number [SiF / ErCd]. The manual contains detailed information and examples in chapter 16-2.

The terminator can be changed from carriage return and line feed (0Dh 0Ah) to carriage return (0Dh) [SiF / CrLf]. This affects both the output and the input (commands).

It’s also possible to change the decimal point to a comma [bASFnc / Pnt].

The balance can re-zero (tare) itself after sending the weight, which is useful during formulation [dout / Ar-d].

FZ-i balances are equipped with an internal clock and calendar and can output the time, date or time and date [bASFnc / dout / S-td]. According to the manual, this only works when outputting GLP data and not with individual weight values (I will test this later this week). This information can be added to the weight data [dout / S-td].

You can use the animal weighing application to calculate an average weight and automatically output it (as shown in this short video). Statistical calculation mode can output numbered individual weight values and summarized statistical data.

You’ll find further settings in a function table in the user manual (chapter 10).

Further information

 

Software Kern BalanceConnection: what’s new in 2019

Two versions of Kern’s BalanceConnection software are now available: the standard version (SCD-4.0) and the Pro version (SCD-4.0-PRO).

The following table shows the features of the standard version on the left and the additional features of the Pro version on the right (according to Kern’s 2019 catalog):

BalanceConnection SCD-4.0BalanceConnection SCD-4.0-PRO
· For operating systems Windows XP, Vista, 7,
8, 8.1, 10
· Supports balances measuring devices with
RS 232, RS 485, Bluetooth, LAN or WLAN
network (TCP/UDP/IP)
· Highly flexible formatting of the output (any
order, formatting and rounding), particularly
recording of date and time for every value
transferred, if required
· Any number of devices/interfaces can be
connected, as well as simultaneous and
synchronised recording of several balances
· Key-activated or time-controlled interro-
gation of measurements or trigger of device
functions, also for continuous recording
· The interface protocols for KERN balances are
already predefined (standard configuration)
· Compatible interface cable included when
you order a KERN balance at the same time
· Many different transfer and recording
options:
– Microsoft ® Excel/Access/Word in the
fore ground or background
– Other Windows applications (through key
simulation), e.g. shipping software or ERP
system (SAP, Sage, etc.)
– File recording (e.g. as text or CSV file)
– Print out on text or label printer
– Screen output such as large display, line
chart (drying curve for moisture analyzer),
histogram, etc.
· ODBC/SQL databases such as SQL Server
or MySQL
· Transfer to HTTP Webservices/Web forms
· Histogram
· Enables the connection of medical balances
to practice EDP systems using the device
data transfer protocol (GDT) and also the
HL7 protocol
· Implementation of programs/scrips using
freely-definable command lines
· Command sequences
· Defining the conditions for specific events
and the reaction to these events
· Filter for stability recognition (configurable
value storage)
· Central configuration repository, e.g. on the
network
· On-screen displays with configurable user
interface for flexible balance operation

If you do not need the features listed on the right, the standard version is the right choice. However, this version has also become a bit more expensive compared to the single version available so far.

Inexpensive alternatives

If you don’t need the extensive functionality of BalanceConnection and only want to connect a single scale to your PC, we offer two very inexpensive alternatives. Each of these programs has a single purpose and is therefore easy to set up and use:

  • 232key: Transfers the weight to any application (e.g. Excel, shipping software, etc.) using a key simulation (virtual keyboard wedge).
  • Simple Data Logger: Stores the weight in a CSV file (if desired with date and time), the weight can also be retrieved from the scale using a timer (Plus version only).

Further information

How to connect your scale to a network (Ethernet) using Moxa’s NPort 5110A

Many scales and balances are equipped with an RS-232 interface. Moxa’s NPort series and similar serial device servers allow you to connect such scales to a network (Ethernet). In this article, I’ll show you how to connect a Moxa NPort 5110A to an Ohaus scale and how to configure and test it.

1. Physical connection

The Moxa Nport 5110A has an RS-232 port (DE9M) on one side and an Ethernet port on the other side:

Data cables (red) are not included.

To communicate with your scale, you’ll need a matching RS-232 cable. The Ohaus Defender 3000 scale used in this example requires a DE9M to DE9F straight (1:1) cable:

Ohaus scale with Ethernet connection through Moxa NPort 5110A

Once the physical connection to the scale has been established, the Moxa NPort has to be configured. There are several ways to do so. I prefer the following method:

  1. Connect the NPort directly to a single computer (not a LAN) with an Ethernet cable.
  2. Use the NPort Administator software included with the device to configure it.

2. Network configuration

Start the NPort Administrator and locate your NPort by clicking on the Search button:NPort Administrator: Search

It should be found at the default IP address (192.168.127.254).

Note: It’s not always necessary to change your PC’s IP address if you’re running the NPort Administrator software. However, if you receive error messages during the following steps, try to temporarily set your computer’s IP address to an address on the same subnet (such as 192.168.127.1).

Select the Ethernet connection under Control Panel > Network and Internet > Network connections, right-click on it and choose Properties, then select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click on Properties. Make a note of your current settings so that you can restore them later, then enter the temporary IP address:
Ethernet IP address setting in Windows 10

If the NPort is shown as locked, right-click on it and select Unlock:
NPort Administrator: UnlockThe default password is “moxa”.

Right-click again and select Configure, then select the Network tab:
NPort Administrator: Network configurationEnter a static IP address, subnet mask and gateway that work on your network (or select DHCP or BOOTP for automatic address assignment, though this is not recommended for most operating modes).

To make the NPort accessible on our network, I set its IP address to 192.168.0.253:
NPort Administrator: Modified network settings

With the network configuration complete, you can disconnect the NPort 5110A from your computer and connect it to your network (LAN).

3. RS-232 configuration

It is essential that both the NPort and the scale use the same settings for the serial port (RS-232). In the Serial tab, select the port (the NPort 5110A only has one, but you still have to select it), check Modify and click on Settings:
NPort Administrator: Default serial settings

Enter the RS-232 settings found in your scale’s menu or user manual. The default settings of our Ohaus Defender 3000 scale are shown in the screenshot below:NPort Administrator: Serial configuration (RS-232)

Important: By default, the NPort is set to CTS/RTS flow control! You cannot change this setting when using the Setup Wizard through the web console. As mentioned before, I recommend using the NPort Administrator software instead.

4. Set an operating mode

To change the mode, go to the Operating Mode tab, check Modify, select the port and click on Settings:NPort Administrator: Operating Mode

The NPort 5110A supports several operating modes, I will only discuss the following two here:

  • Real COM mode: This mode allows you to create a virtual COM port on a PC and use the scale as if it were connected directly to that PC. This is very useful when you’re using software which only supports connections to COM ports and cannot communicate over TCP/IP (such as our 232key virtual keyboard wedge software).
    Please note that you’ll have to install a virtual COM port driver on the PC that communicates with the scale. In my tests on Windows 10, setting up the COM port through NPort Administrator did not create a new virtual COM port on the system. However, using the NPort Windows Driver Manager worked.
  • TCP Server: The NPort acts as a server, waiting for incoming connections from TCP clients on port 4001 (or on another user-defined port). The maximum number of concurrent connections can be changed from 1 (default) to up to 8. This mode works with software like our Simple Data Logger and many others.
    NPort Administartor: TCP Server mode

    Note: It is not necessary to set the data packing options unless you want to optimize either for minimal latency or maximum throughput. By default, the device will try to find a reasonable compromise (this is likely achieved by observing the delay between the data received over RS-232 to determine when a “line” of data is complete).

    When I set the scale to continuous transmission mode (wich has no delay between the weight values), the NPort packed 104 bytes in each Ethernet frame, corresponding to almost 6 weight values (the scale sends 80 values/s):
    Wireshark screenshot

For further details and for information on the other modes, please consult the user manual.

5. Run a test

Depending on the operating mode chosen above, you’ll have to use different programs to test the NPort 5110A. In addition to the software I’ve already mentioned above, you could use the following:

Real COM mode

A terminal program like Termite or HTerm can connect to the virtual COM port. Make sure that the connection parameters correspond to the settings of your scale.

TCP Server

You can use PuTTY set to “Raw” TCP mode to act as a TCP client:
PuTTY configurationThe following screenshot shows commands sent to the scale and the replies:PuTTY communication with Ohaus scaleAnother option is our free TCPTester software. It repeatedly sends a user-defined command to the scale (e.g. to request the weight). Once a reply has been received, the command is repeated:

TCPTester tcp utility used to test Moxa NPort connected to Ohaus scale
TCPTester free TCP test utility available from Smartlux

During testing, it can be useful to observe the LEDs on the NPort:

  • The “Ready” LED should be green.
  • The “Link” LED is green when the NPort has established a 100 Mbs Ethernet connection and orange on a 10 Mbps connection.
  • The Tx/Rx LED flashes orange when the NPort receives data from the scale and flashes green when the NPort is sends data to the scale over the serial port. Therefore, If you’re sending commands to a scale, you should be able to see it flash green. A reply from the scale would cause the LED to flash orange. If this is too difficult to see, consider using the web console to diagnose connection issues (I found it worked best in Firefox):
    Moxa web console monitor async

I hope this article has been useful. What are your experiences with Moxa’s NPort serial device servers? Please don’t hesitate to leave a comment! For support, please contact Moxa or your vendor.

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